A | B | C | D | E

Abrasion:

The physical rubbing or scraping of a protective clothing item by an abrasive rotary wheel determines the length of wear based on the number of cycles till the polymer coating is worn through. This term is useful in measuring how long a glove will wear or how well it will hold up when handling abrasive objects.


Abrasive Cuts:

These are very common in many industries. A prime example of an abrasive cut is the constant rubbing action of a glove when handling parts with a sharp or jagged edge i.e. sheet-metal stamping or plastic parts.


Absorption:

The first step in permeation. The chemical substance is absorbed onto the surface of the protective clothing.


Analytical test method:

The method used to measure permeation. Different chemicals require different methods of detection such as gas chromatography for most volatile organic solvents.


ANSI/ISEA 105:

American National Standard for Hand Protection Selection Criteria: This standard provides the performance based ranking system for maximizing hand protection to reduce hand injuries. It utilizes existing ASTM, ISO or EN Standards and assigns a performance rating based on the results of testing utilizing standards from various worldwide technical safety organizations.


Arc Thermal Protective Value (ATPV)

Maxium incident energy that PPE can be exposed to and prevent second degree burns. Value is measured in calories per square centimeter.


ASTM 1790-05:

Updated version of the “1997” test method. The cut length in the fabric was reduced to 20mm (approx. 3/4 inch). Also uses a 4” blade that only contacts the material one time.

 

    Advantages: Provided a working system to compare cut-resistant products.
    Disadvantages: Microscopic sharpness of blades vary and need calibration. This causes variance from lab to lab (27% average).

 


ASTM 1790-97:

This standard used the CPPT machine to measure cut resistance of fabric. This was the first Standardized test method used to measure the load in grams that a textile material could withstand. Cut length in material is 25mm (approx. 1 inch). Uses a 4 inch blade that is only in contact with the material one time.

    Advantages: Provided a working system to compare cut-resistant products.
    Disadvantages: Microscopic sharpness of blades vary and need calibration. This causes variance from lab to lab (27% average).

ASTM D5511

Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under High-Solids Anaerobic-Digestion Conditions


ASTM D5526

Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Accelerated Landfill Conditions

ASTM D6413

Test for vertical flame resistance

Derives measurement values for afterflame time, afterglow time, and char length. This is the most widely-accepted test method for industrial PPE.


ASTM F739:

Standard Test Method for Permeation of Liquids and Gases through Protective Clothing Materials under Conditions of Continuous Contact. This method simulates constant total immersion in the test chemical for eight full hours, the worst case exposure.


ASTM F1001:

Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials:

This standard established a list of recommended chemicals to test the chemical resistance properties of protective clothing chosen because they are from a broad range of chemical classes. These include both liquids and gases:

  • Acetone
  • Acetonitrile
  • Carbon Disulfide
  • Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride)
  • Diethylamine
  • Dimethylformamide
  • Ethyl Acetate
  • Hexane
  • Methanol
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Sulfuric Acid
  • Tetrachloroethylene
  • Toluene
  • Ammonia (gas)
  • 1,3-Butadiene (gas)
  • Chlorine (gas)
  • Ethylene Oxide (gas)
  • Hydrogen Chloride (gas)
  • Methyl Chloride (gas)

ASTM F1383:

Standard Test Method for Permeation of Liquids and Gases through Protective Clothing Materials under Conditions of Intermittent Contact. This method simulates limited contact with chemicals rather than full constant immersion.


ASTM F1506

Flame resistance specification

Performance Specification used to evaluate the flame resistance of textile materials to be used for wearing apparel for use by electrical workers exposed to momentary electric arc and related thermal hazards.


Breakthrough Time:

The number of minutes from initial contact with a test chemical until it is first detected on the inside of the protective clothing measured using sensitive analytical testing. It is essentially the number of minutes until your skin is exposed inside the gloves or other protective clothing.


Carcinogen:

There is enough evidence that the International Agency for Research on Cancer deems the chemical a human carcinogen.


CAS Number:

The Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number is a universal identifier unique to each chemical substance. A CAS Registry Number is separated by hyphens into three parts, the first consisting of up to 7 digits, the second consisting of two digits, and the third consisting of a single digit. A chemical may have numerous different names but only one CAS Number.


CE

Directive 89/686/EEC (Personal protective equipment)
    Category I - Minor risks
    Category II - Reversible risks (injury)
    Category III - Irreversible risks (corrosion), certified compliant and tested by a notified body whose number is specified

Class:

ASTM F 1186 Standard Classification System for Chemicals According to Functional Groups: This standard classification system by functional groups uses a three-digit code.


Collection Medium:

The medium on the collection side of a permeation test cell designed to collect the analyte being measured as it permeates through the protective clothing from the challenge side of the test cell. The collection medium may also serve as the carrier gas in gas chromatography such as Nitrogen or as the mobile phase solvent in HPLC or as the water in pH or Conductivity testing.


Concentration:

The amount or mass of a constituent divided by the total mass of a solution. Normally all Organic Solvents tested in this site are 100%. Acids and Caustics are solutions in water. In permeation testing of acids, in particular, the concentration will affect the breakthrough time. More concentrated acids will permeate sooner than dilutions.


Conductivity:

In permeation testing, one Analytical Test Method that is useful in certain kinds of chemicals measures the ionic disassociation of the chemical where deionized water is the collection medium. A Conductivity meter is the detector and may be useful for salt or some acids and caustics testing.


Degradation:

The deleterious change in one or more physical properties of a protective clothing material due to contact with a chemical. Showa Best Glove uses the swell of the glove material measured by weight change after immersion in the test chemical measured at 5, 30, 60 and 240 minutes. The gravimetric rating system used is:

    E: Excellent or <10% weight change
    G: Good or 10 to 20% weight change
    F: Fair or >20% to 30% weight change
    P: Poor or >30% to 50% weight change
    NR: Not Recommended or >50% weight change (severe degradation)

    Other degradation changes may include delaminating, discoloration, hardening, loss of tensile strength

Desorption:

The chemical vapors leave the chemical protective clothing on the inside and exposure to the chemical occurs.


Diffusion:

The second phase of permeation. The molecular passage of a chemical through the protective clothing material. It can be affected by the thickness of the material and the temperature conditions or temperature of the chemical.


EN 374-1: 2003

Chemical risks

The level (0 to 6) indicates the time required for different chemicals to permeate through the glove.

Permeation performance index = Measured breakthrough time
Level 1 > 10
Level 2 > 30
Level 3 > 60
Level 4 > 120
Level 5 > 240
Level 6 > 480

 
If the product displays the first symbol, it has achieved a performance index at least equal to 2 for three of the chemicals listed below:
Letter Code Chemical CAS Number Class
A Methanol 67-56-1 Primary Alcohol
B Acetone 67-64-1 Ketone
C Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Nitrile
D Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Chlorinated hydrocarbon
E Carbon disulphide 75-15-0 Organic compound containing sulphur
F Toulene 108-88-3 Aromatic hydrocarbon
G Diethylamine 109-89-7 Amine
H Tetrahydrofurane 109-99-9 Heterocyclic ether
I Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 Ester
J n-Heptane 142-85-5 Saturated hydrocarbon
K Caustic soda 40% 1310-73-2 Inorganic base
L Sulphuric acid 96% 7664-93-9 Inorganic mineral acid
If the glove shows the secoond symbol, it has not met the conditions required for the first symbol.

EN 374-2: 2003

Protection against Microorganisms

The glove is considered to be resistant to microorganisms if it has successfully undergone the penetration test (air and/or water leak test) and if it meets at least level 2 of the penetration test.


EN 388:2003

Mechanical risks

Used in the European Community Community. A series of tests to measure mechanical performance. Measures Abrasion, Cut, Tear, and Puncture. Remember ACTP! Tested and specified levels of resistance to the following risks:

    ABRASION (0 TO 4): number of cycles required to abrade through the glove at a constant speed.
    CUT (0 TO 5): index calculated based on the number of cycles required to cut through the glove at a constant speed.
    TEAR (0 TO 4): force required to tear the glove.
    PUNCTURE (0 TO 4): force required to puncture the sample with a standard steel punch.

EN 407

Heat-related risks

Tested levels of glove performance in terms of the following risks:

    Resistance to flammability (0 to 4)
    Resistance to contact heat (0 to 4)
    Resistance to convective heat (0 to 3)
    Resistance to radiant heat (0 to 4)
    Resistance to small splashes of molten metal (0 or 1)
    Resistance to large splashes of molten metal (0 or 1)
    “0” means that during the test level 1 was not reached.
    “X” means that the test was not performed or not possible

 


EN 511

Cold-related risks

Tested levels of glove performance in terms of the following risks:

  • Climatic or industrial cold transmitted by convection (0 to 4).
  • Climatic or industrial cold transmitted by contact (0 to 4).
  • Impermeability to water (0 or 1).

 


If the glove shows this symbol, it has achieved a performance index for (from left to right) climatic cold or industrial cold transmitted by convection, climatic cold or industrial cold transmitted by contact, impermeability to water.

    “0” means that during the test level 1 was not reached.
    “X” means that the test was not performed or not possible.

 


EN 420: 2003

General requirements and test methods.
  • Technical information
  • Glove markings
  • Sizes
  • Level of dexterity (1 to 5)
  • Innocuousness of the glove

EN 1149-1

Anti-static properties
Tested level of glove surface resistivity. Measured in ohms/square (Ω), this indicates the capacity of the glove to disperse via a dissipative and/or conductive effect the accumulated static electricity discharges on the operator’s hand.

EN 455-1

SHOWA N-DEX® medical gloves are manufactured in an ISO 9001:2000 quality certified facility and meet the 1.5 Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), required by the European Standard EN 455-1. The Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL) is a statistical standard defined by industry organisations, customers and manufacturers. Inspection levels or sampling plans are defined to determine pass or failure during quality controls. The lower the Acceptance Quality Limit, the more consistent the product quality will be. The larger the sampling plans (inspection levels) the lower the chance of overlooking defective product batches


EUROPEAN DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC

covering medical examination and surgical gloves


European Risk Category:

Toxicity Label required by the European “Guide to Classification and Marking of Hazardous Substances” labeling ordinance as follows:

    Extremely Toxic: Dermal LD50 in rabbits is 1 to 50 mg/kg
    Highly Toxic: Dermal LD50 in rabbits is 51 to 500 mg/kg
    Moderately Toxic: Dermal LD50 in rabbits is 501 to 5000 mg/kg
    Slightly Toxic: Dermal LD50 in rabbits is >5000 mg/kg

European Risk Code:

Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) is a European law concerning the labeling of chemicals and includes:

    Tx:   Very Toxic
    T:  Toxic
    CX:  Highly Corrosive
    CANCER:  Known Carcinogen
    C:  Corrosive
    X:  Harmful
    SENS:  Allergen or Known Sensitizer
    CANCER:  Suspected Carcinogen
    V:  Low Toxicity
    n.a.:  No Risk

Extreme Hazard:

A substance appears on the US Environmental Protection Agency list of Extremely Hazardous substances because of its flammability or toxicity and potential to cause a catastrophic event.


Food Contact

It is applied to materials and articles that, at finished state, are intended to come into contact or are brought into contact with foodstuffs or with water that is for human consumption. According to Regulation 1935/2004: «The materials and articles must be manufactured in accordance with good manufacturing practice so that, under normal or foreseeable conditions for their use, they do not transfer their constituents to food in quantities which could:

  • Present a danger to human health,
  • Results in an unacceptable change in the composition of the foodstuffs or a deterioration in the organoleptic characteristics thereof.
All SHOWA gloves with the «food contact» logo are conforme to Regulation (EU) No 1935/2004 and the Regulation (EU) No 2023/2006